ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः। सर्वे सन्तु निरामयाः। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु। मा कश्चित् दुःख भाग्भवेत्॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
MAN AND HIS WORLD-1

LIFE AND EVOLUTION

evolution of man
Every species whether of animals and plants has grown of developed out of another kind. Nature produces new species by natural selection, i.e., by selecting those plants or animals which will be the best fitted to survive and adapt themselves to the conditions of life where they happen to exist. Man is no exception to this rule.
This process of development has taken place from the earliest fish-like vertebrates to fishes, birds, reptiles and the mammals leading eventually to man.
It is by no means a new idea that man is the product of a continuous development. The ancient philosophers in China and India made special study of the theory of evolution. Notable contributions to the subject of man’s place in relation to the earliest forms of life were made by “Tson Tse”, in the 6th Century B.C. In the last two centuries Darwin, Hacckel and Huxley made a thorough and extensive research to establish the theory.

STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE

struggle for life
Man’s story begins about 150,000 years ago. Primitive man had no shelter and no clothing. He had to roam about all alone from place to place and lived a precarious existence fighting constantly with Nature and fellow animals.
Food and self-defense were the two major problems and busy tackling them, man was hardly left with any leisure. By about 75,000 B.C., man learnt the use of weapons. From unpolished stones hammers, arrow heads, spear heads and other crude tools were prepared. Progress was very slow in this Old Stone Age which lasted for about 13,000 years.

MAN LIVES AND LEARNS

During the long dark centuries of the Stone-Age, man had learned the use of fur and hide. The skins of the animals he killed for self-defense or for food were enough for his primitive attire. He also discovered caves for his residence and began to dislike living in isolation.
Cave man came to know how to light the fire by rubbing two stones and sticks together. Bone and ivory in addition to stones to be used for making weapons like fish-hooks, needles, etc.
Man also taught himself to express his thoughts and desires through the help of sounds and drawings. Walls of their caves were decorated with the paintings of animals he saw and killed. Spinning and weaving, pieces of potteries and handles of weapons began to appear in this period of polished stone.
This is the New Stone Age that lasted 10,000 years. With the use of stones and fire, man’s march of progress developed a faster pace.

DAWN OF CIVILISATION

Such group gradually grew into society and these villages into towns. Surplus production of food gave them the time and the incentive to make other necessities of life. Canoes were made. Rivers could be crossed. Travel and trade were possible.
As they began to live together, the question of respecting mutual rights and maintaining social order arose. As the means of production improved, supervisors and organizers became richer through other people’s labor. Kings and nobles sprang from amongst these leaders and pioneers.
About 4,000 B.C., copper came to serve mankind at least in Egypt, India and Mesopotamia. Recorded history of man’s progress dates from this period. Civilisation begins.

CIVILIZATION SPREADS WINGS

For about 2,000 years civilization attained a brilliant peak even before the Aryans came. From Egypt to China ran a belt of progress spreading over three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. India, Arabia, Mesopotamia, China, Greece, Rome and Crete formed the chains in the pattern of these high order of human life.
These civilizations produced thinkers and writers, artists and musicians, scientists and engineers – versatile men who rose to be the masters of collective destiny. They lived and died for the prosperity.

EGYPT THE LIGHT OF AFRICA

The earliest Egyptian civilization was flourishing in the Nile Valley, some thousands of years before the birth of Christ. It is remarkable that in 4241 B.C. , the ancient Egyptians, who were Hamites, invented a yearly calendar of 365 days. A great line of more than 30 Egyptian Pharaohs ruled Egypt one after another till the country was invaded by the Assyrians in the 7th Century B.C. The Persians concurred Egypt in 525 B.C. This thriving land with her ancient record of civilization finally lost her freedom and remained in fetters.
After the death of Cleopatra in 31 B.C., Egypt was conquered by the Romans. The Arabs captured Egypt in 641 A.C., and ever since then, Islam has dominated this land.

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